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Revised: 03/01/1999
Disclaimer
----------
Although PKWARE will attempt to supply current and accurate
information relating to its file formats, algorithms, and the
subject programs, the possibility of error can not be eliminated.
PKWARE therefore expressly disclaims any warranty that the
information contained in the associated materials relating to the
subject programs and/or the format of the files created or
accessed by the subject programs and/or the algorithms used by
the subject programs, or any other matter, is current, correct or
accurate as delivered. Any risk of damage due to any possible
inaccurate information is assumed by the user of the information.
Furthermore, the information relating to the subject programs
and/or the file formats created or accessed by the subject
programs and/or the algorithms used by the subject programs is
subject to change without notice.
General Format of a ZIP file
----------------------------
Files stored in arbitrary order. Large zipfiles can span multiple
diskette media.
Overall zipfile format:
[local file header + file data + data_descriptor] . . .
[central directory] end of central directory record
A. Local file header:
local file header signature 4 bytes (0x04034b50)
version needed to extract 2 bytes
general purpose bit flag 2 bytes
compression method 2 bytes
last mod file time 2 bytes
last mod file date 2 bytes
crc-32 4 bytes
compressed size 4 bytes
uncompressed size 4 bytes
filename length 2 bytes
extra field length 2 bytes
filename (variable size)
extra field (variable size)
B. Data descriptor:
crc-32 4 bytes
compressed size 4 bytes
uncompressed size 4 bytes
This descriptor exists only if bit 3 of the general
purpose bit flag is set (see below). It is byte aligned
and immediately follows the last byte of compressed data.
This descriptor is used only when it was not possible to
seek in the output zip file, e.g., when the output zip file
was standard output or a non seekable device.
C. Central directory structure:
[file header] . . . end of central dir record
File header:
central file header signature 4 bytes (0x02014b50)
version made by 2 bytes
version needed to extract 2 bytes
general purpose bit flag 2 bytes
compression method 2 bytes
last mod file time 2 bytes
last mod file date 2 bytes
crc-32 4 bytes
compressed size 4 bytes
uncompressed size 4 bytes
filename length 2 bytes
extra field length 2 bytes
file comment length 2 bytes
disk number start 2 bytes
internal file attributes 2 bytes
external file attributes 4 bytes
relative offset of local header 4 bytes
filename (variable size)
extra field (variable size)
file comment (variable size)
End of central dir record:
end of central dir signature 4 bytes (0x06054b50)
number of this disk 2 bytes
number of the disk with the
start of the central directory 2 bytes
total number of entries in
the central dir on this disk 2 bytes
total number of entries in
the central dir 2 bytes
size of the central directory 4 bytes
offset of start of central
directory with respect to
the starting disk number 4 bytes
zipfile comment length 2 bytes
zipfile comment (variable size)
D. Explanation of fields:
version made by (2 bytes)
The upper byte indicates the compatibility of the file
attribute information. If the external file attributes
are compatible with MS-DOS and can be read by PKZIP for
DOS version 2.04g then this value will be zero. If these
attributes are not compatible, then this value will
identify the host system on which the attributes are
compatible. Software can use this information to determine
the line record format for text files etc. The current
mappings are:
0 - MS-DOS and OS/2 (FAT / VFAT / FAT32 file systems)
1 - Amiga 2 - VAX/VMS
3 - Unix 4 - VM/CMS
5 - Atari ST 6 - OS/2 H.P.F.S.
7 - Macintosh 8 - Z-System
9 - CP/M 10 - Windows NTFS
11 thru 255 - unused
The lower byte indicates the version number of the
software used to encode the file. The value/10
indicates the major version number, and the value
mod 10 is the minor version number.
version needed to extract (2 bytes)
The minimum software version needed to extract the
file, mapped as above.
general purpose bit flag: (2 bytes)
Bit 0: If set, indicates that the file is encrypted.
(For Method 6 - Imploding)
Bit 1: If the compression method used was type 6,
Imploding, then this bit, if set, indicates
an 8K sliding dictionary was used. If clear,
then a 4K sliding dictionary was used.
Bit 2: If the compression method used was type 6,
Imploding, then this bit, if set, indicates
3 Shannon-Fano trees were used to encode the
sliding dictionary output. If clear, then 2
Shannon-Fano trees were used.
(For Method 8 - Deflating)
Bit 2 Bit 1
0 0 Normal (-en) compression option was used.
0 1 Maximum (-ex) compression option was used.
1 0 Fast (-ef) compression option was used.
1 1 Super Fast (-es) compression option was used.
Note: Bits 1 and 2 are undefined if the compression
method is any other.
Bit 3: If this bit is set, the fields crc-32, compressed
size and uncompressed size are set to zero in the
local header. The correct values are put in the
data descriptor immediately following the compressed
data. (Note: PKZIP version 2.04g for DOS only
recognizes this bit for method 8 compression, newer
versions of PKZIP recognize this bit for any
compression method.)
Bit 4: Reserved for use with method 8, for enhanced
deflating.
Bit 5: If this bit is set, this indicates that the file is
compressed patched data. (Note: Requires PKZIP
version 2.70 or greater)
Bit 6: Currently unused.
Bit 7: Currently unused.
Bit 8: Currently unused.
Bit 9: Currently unused.
Bit 10: Currently unused.
Bit 11: Currently unused.
Bit 12: Reserved by PKWARE for enhanced compression.
Bit 13: Reserved by PKWARE.
Bit 14: Reserved by PKWARE.
Bit 15: Reserved by PKWARE.
compression method: (2 bytes)
(see accompanying documentation for algorithm
descriptions)
0 - The file is stored (no compression)
1 - The file is Shrunk
2 - The file is Reduced with compression factor 1
3 - The file is Reduced with compression factor 2
4 - The file is Reduced with compression factor 3
5 - The file is Reduced with compression factor 4
6 - The file is Imploded
7 - Reserved for Tokenizing compression algorithm
8 - The file is Deflated
9 - Reserved for enhanced Deflating
10 - PKWARE Date Compression Library Imploding
date and time fields: (2 bytes each)
The date and time are encoded in standard MS-DOS format.
If input came from standard input, the date and time are
those at which compression was started for this data.
CRC-32: (4 bytes)
The CRC-32 algorithm was generously contributed by
David Schwaderer and can be found in his excellent
book "C Programmers Guide to NetBIOS" published by
Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc. The 'magic number' for
the CRC is 0xdebb20e3. The proper CRC pre and post
conditioning is used, meaning that the CRC register
is pre-conditioned with all ones (a starting value
of 0xffffffff) and the value is post-conditioned by
taking the one's complement of the CRC residual.
If bit 3 of the general purpose flag is set, this
field is set to zero in the local header and the correct
value is put in the data descriptor and in the central
directory.
compressed size: (4 bytes)
uncompressed size: (4 bytes)
The size of the file compressed and uncompressed,
respectively. If bit 3 of the general purpose bit flag
is set, these fields are set to zero in the local header
and the correct values are put in the data descriptor and
in the central directory.
filename length: (2 bytes)
extra field length: (2 bytes)
file comment length: (2 bytes)
The length of the filename, extra field, and comment
fields respectively. The combined length of any
directory record and these three fields should not
generally exceed 65,535 bytes. If input came from standard
input, the filename length is set to zero.
disk number start: (2 bytes)
The number of the disk on which this file begins.
internal file attributes: (2 bytes)
The lowest bit of this field indicates, if set, that
the file is apparently an ASCII or text file. If not
set, that the file apparently contains binary data.
The remaining bits are unused in version 1.0.
Bits 1 and 2 are reserved for use by PKWARE.
external file attributes: (4 bytes)
The mapping of the external attributes is
host-system dependent (see 'version made by'). For
MS-DOS, the low order byte is the MS-DOS directory
attribute byte. If input came from standard input, this
field is set to zero.
relative offset of local header: (4 bytes)
This is the offset from the start of the first disk on
which this file appears, to where the local header should
be found.
filename: (Variable)
The name of the file, with optional relative path.
The path stored should not contain a drive or
device letter, or a leading slash. All slashes
should be forward slashes '/' as opposed to
backwards slashes '\' for compatibility with Amiga
and Unix file systems etc. If input came from standard
input, there is no filename field.
extra field: (Variable)
This is for future expansion. If additional information
needs to be stored in the future, it should be stored
here. Earlier versions of the software can then safely
skip this file, and find the next file or header. This
field will be 0 length in version 1.0.
In order to allow different programs and different types
of information to be stored in the 'extra' field in .ZIP
files, the following structure should be used for all
programs storing data in this field:
header1+data1 + header2+data2 . . .
Each header should consist of:
Header ID - 2 bytes
Data Size - 2 bytes
Note: all fields stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order.
The Header ID field indicates the type of data that is in
the following data block.
Header ID's of 0 thru 31 are reserved for use by PKWARE.
The remaining ID's can be used by third party vendors for
proprietary usage.
The current Header ID mappings defined by PKWARE are:
0x0007 AV Info
0x0009 OS/2
0x000a NTFS
0x000c VAX/VMS
0x000d Unix
0x000f Patch Descriptor
Several third party mappings commonly used are:
0x4b46 FWKCS MD5 (see below)
0x07c8 Macintosh
0x4341 Acorn/SparkFS
0x4453 Windows NT security descriptor (binary ACL)
0x4704 VM/CMS
0x470f MVS
0x4c41 OS/2 access control list (text ACL)
0x4d49 Info-ZIP VMS (VAX or Alpha)
0x5455 extended timestamp
0x5855 Info-ZIP Unix (original, also OS/2, NT, etc)
0x6542 BeOS/BeBox
0x756e ASi Unix
0x7855 Info-ZIP Unix (new)
0xfd4a SMS/QDOS
The Data Size field indicates the size of the following
data block. Programs can use this value to skip to the
next header block, passing over any data blocks that are
not of interest.
Note: As stated above, the size of the entire .ZIP file
header, including the filename, comment, and extra
field should not exceed 64K in size.
In case two different programs should appropriate the same
Header ID value, it is strongly recommended that each
program place a unique signature of at least two bytes in
size (and preferably 4 bytes or bigger) at the start of
each data area. Every program should verify that its
unique signature is present, in addition to the Header ID
value being correct, before assuming that it is a block of
known type.
-OS/2 Extra Field:
The following is the layout of the OS/2 attributes "extra"
block. (Last Revision 09/05/95)
Note: all fields stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order.
Value Size Description
----- ---- -----------
(OS/2) 0x0009 2 bytes Tag for this "extra" block type
TSize 2 bytes Size for the following data block
BSize 4 bytes Uncompressed Block Size
CType 2 bytes Compression type
EACRC 4 bytes CRC value for uncompress block
(var) variable Compressed block
The OS/2 extended attribute structure (FEA2LIST) is
compressed and then stored in it's entirety within this
structure. There will only ever be one "block" of data in
VarFields[].
-UNIX Extra Field:
The following is the layout of the Unix "extra" block.
Note: all fields are stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte
order.
Value Size Description
----- ---- -----------
(UNIX) 0x000d 2 bytes Tag for this "extra" block type
TSize 2 bytes Size for the following data block
Atime 4 bytes File last access time
Mtime 4 bytes File last modification time
Uid 2 bytes File user ID
Gid 2 bytes File group ID
(var) variable Variable length data field
The variable length data field will contain file type
specific data. Currently the only values allowed are
the original "linked to" file names for hard or symbolic
links.
-VAX/VMS Extra Field:
The following is the layout of the VAX/VMS attributes
"extra" block.
Note: all fields stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order.
Value Size Description
----- ---- -----------
(VMS) 0x000c 2 bytes Tag for this "extra" block type
TSize 2 bytes Size of the total "extra" block
CRC 4 bytes 32-bit CRC for remainder of the block
Tag1 2 bytes VMS attribute tag value #1
Size1 2 bytes Size of attribute #1, in bytes
(var.) Size1 Attribute #1 data
.
.
.
TagN 2 bytes VMS attribute tage value #N
SizeN 2 bytes Size of attribute #N, in bytes
(var.) SizeN Attribute #N data
Rules:
1. There will be one or more of attributes present, which
will each be preceded by the above TagX & SizeX values.
These values are identical to the ATR$C_XXXX and
ATR$S_XXXX constants which are defined in ATR.H under
VMS C. Neither of these values will ever be zero.
2. No word alignment or padding is performed.
3. A well-behaved PKZIP/VMS program should never produce
more than one sub-block with the same TagX value. Also,
there will never be more than one "extra" block of type
0x000c in a particular directory record.
-NTFS Extra Field:
The following is the layout of the NTFS attributes
"extra" block.
Note: all fields stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order.
Value Size Description
----- ---- -----------
(NTFS) 0x000a 2 bytes Tag for this "extra" block type
TSize 2 bytes Size of the total "extra" block
Reserved 4 bytes Reserved for future use
Tag1 2 bytes NTFS attribute tag value #1
Size1 2 bytes Size of attribute #1, in bytes
(var.) Size1 Attribute #1 data
.
.
.
TagN 2 bytes NTFS attribute tage value #N
SizeN 2 bytes Size of attribute #N, in bytes
(var.) SizeN Attribute #N data
For NTFS, values for Tag1 through TagN are as follows:
(currently only one set of attributes is defined for NTFS)
Tag Size Description
----- ---- -----------
0x0001 2 bytes Tag for attribute #1
Size1 2 bytes Size of attribute #1, in bytes
Mtime 8 bytes File last modification time
Atime 8 bytes File last access time
Ctime 8 bytes File creation time
-PATCH Descriptor Extra Field:
The following is the layout of the Patch Descriptor "extra"
block.
Note: all fields stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order.
Value Size Description
----- ---- -----------
(Patch) 0x000f 2 bytes Tag for this "extra" block type
TSize 2 bytes Size of the total "extra" block
Version 2 bytes Version of the descriptor
Flags 4 bytes Actions and reactions (see below)
OldSize 4 bytes Size of the file about to be patched
OldCRC 4 bytes 32-bit CRC of the file to be patched
NewSize 4 bytes Size of the resulting file
NewCRC 4 bytes 32-bit CRC of the resulting file
Actions and reactions
Bits Description
---- ----------------
0 Use for autodetection
1 Treat as selfpatch
2-3 RESERVED
4-5 Action (see below)
6-7 RESERVED
8-9 Reaction (see below) to absent file
10-11 Reaction (see below) to newer file
12-13 Reaction (see below) to unknown file
14-15 RESERVED
16-31 RESERVED
Actions
Action Value
------ -----
none 0
add 1
delete 2
patch 3
Reactions
Reaction Value
-------- -----
ask 0
skip 1
ignore 2
fail 3
- FWKCS MD5 Extra Field:
The FWKCS Contents_Signature System, used in
automatically identifying files independent of filename,
optionally adds and uses an extra field to support the
rapid creation of an enhanced contents_signature:
Header ID = 0x4b46
Data Size = 0x0013
Preface = 'M','D','5'
followed by 16 bytes containing the uncompressed file's
128_bit MD5 hash(1), low byte first.
When FWKCS revises a zipfile central directory to add
this extra field for a file, it also replaces the
central directory entry for that file's uncompressed
filelength with a measured value.
FWKCS provides an option to strip this extra field, if
present, from a zipfile central directory. In adding
this extra field, FWKCS preserves Zipfile Authenticity
Verification; if stripping this extra field, FWKCS
preserves all versions of AV through PKZIP version 2.04g.
FWKCS, and FWKCS Contents_Signature System, are
trademarks of Frederick W. Kantor.
(1) R. Rivest, RFC1321.TXT, MIT Laboratory for Computer
Science and RSA Data Security, Inc., April 1992.
ll.76-77: "The MD5 algorithm is being placed in the
public domain for review and possible adoption as a
standard."
file comment: (Variable)
The comment for this file.
number of this disk: (2 bytes)
The number of this disk, which contains central
directory end record.
number of the disk with the start of the central
directory: (2 bytes)
The number of the disk on which the central
directory starts.
total number of entries in the central dir on
this disk: (2 bytes)
The number of central directory entries on this disk.
total number of entries in the central dir: (2 bytes)
The total number of files in the zipfile.
size of the central directory: (4 bytes)
The size (in bytes) of the entire central directory.
offset of start of central directory with respect to
the starting disk number: (4 bytes)
Offset of the start of the central directory on the
disk on which the central directory starts.
zipfile comment length: (2 bytes)
The length of the comment for this zipfile.
zipfile comment: (Variable)
The comment for this zipfile.
D. General notes:
1) All fields unless otherwise noted are unsigned and stored
in Intel low-byte:high-byte, low-word:high-word order.
2) String fields are not null terminated, since the
length is given explicitly.
3) Local headers should not span disk boundaries. Also, even
though the central directory can span disk boundaries, no
single record in the central directory should be split
across disks.
4) The entries in the central directory may not necessarily
be in the same order that files appear in the zipfile.
UnShrinking - Method 1
----------------------
Shrinking is a Dynamic Ziv-Lempel-Welch compression algorithm
with partial clearing. The initial code size is 9 bits, and
the maximum code size is 13 bits. Shrinking differs from
conventional Dynamic Ziv-Lempel-Welch implementations in several
respects:
1) The code size is controlled by the compressor, and is not
automatically increased when codes larger than the current
code size are created (but not necessarily used). When
the decompressor encounters the code sequence 256
(decimal) followed by 1, it should increase the code size
read from the input stream to the next bit size. No
blocking of the codes is performed, so the next code at
the increased size should be read from the input stream
immediately after where the previous code at the smaller
bit size was read. Again, the decompressor should not
increase the code size used until the sequence 256,1 is
encountered.
2) When the table becomes full, total clearing is not
performed. Rather, when the compressor emits the code
sequence 256,2 (decimal), the decompressor should clear
all leaf nodes from the Ziv-Lempel tree, and continue to
use the current code size. The nodes that are cleared
from the Ziv-Lempel tree are then re-used, with the lowest
code value re-used first, and the highest code value
re-used last. The compressor can emit the sequence 256,2
at any time.
Expanding - Methods 2-5
-----------------------
The Reducing algorithm is actually a combination of two
distinct algorithms. The first algorithm compresses repeated
byte sequences, and the second algorithm takes the compressed
stream from the first algorithm and applies a probabilistic
compression method.
The probabilistic compression stores an array of 'follower
sets' S(j), for j=0 to 255, corresponding to each possible
ASCII character. Each set contains between 0 and 32
characters, to be denoted as S(j)[0],...,S(j)[m], where m<32.
The sets are stored at the beginning of the data area for a
Reduced file, in reverse order, with S(255) first, and S(0)
last.
The sets are encoded as { N(j), S(j)[0],...,S(j)[N(j)-1] },
where N(j) is the size of set S(j). N(j) can be 0, in which
case the follower set for S(j) is empty. Each N(j) value is
encoded in 6 bits, followed by N(j) eight bit character values
corresponding to S(j)[0] to S(j)[N(j)-1] respectively. If
N(j) is 0, then no values for S(j) are stored, and the value
for N(j-1) immediately follows.
Immediately after the follower sets, is the compressed data
stream. The compressed data stream can be interpreted for the
probabilistic decompression as follows:
let Last-Character <- 0.
loop until done
if the follower set S(Last-Character) is empty then
read 8 bits from the input stream, and copy this
value to the output stream.
otherwise if the follower set S(Last-Character) is non-empty then
read 1 bit from the input stream.
if this bit is not zero then
read 8 bits from the input stream, and copy this
value to the output stream.
otherwise if this bit is zero then
read B(N(Last-Character)) bits from the input
stream, and assign this value to I.
Copy the value of S(Last-Character)[I] to the
output stream.
assign the last value placed on the output stream to
Last-Character.
end loop
B(N(j)) is defined as the minimal number of bits required to
encode the value N(j)-1.
The decompressed stream from above can then be expanded to
re-create the original file as follows:
let State <- 0.
loop until done
read 8 bits from the input stream into C.
case State of
0: if C is not equal to DLE (144 decimal) then
copy C to the output stream.
otherwise if C is equal to DLE then
let State <- 1.
1: if C is non-zero then
let V <- C.
let Len <- L(V)
let State <- F(Len).
otherwise if C is zero then
copy the value 144 (decimal) to the output stream.
let State <- 0
2: let Len <- Len + C
let State <- 3.
3: move backwards D(V,C) bytes in the output stream
(if this position is before the start of the output
stream, then assume that all the data before the
start of the output stream is filled with zeros).
copy Len+3 bytes from this position to the output stream.
let State <- 0.
end case
end loop
The functions F,L, and D are dependent on the 'compression
factor', 1 through 4, and are defined as follows:
For compression factor 1:
L(X) equals the lower 7 bits of X.
F(X) equals 2 if X equals 127 otherwise F(X) equals 3.
D(X,Y) equals the (upper 1 bit of X) * 256 + Y + 1.
For compression factor 2:
L(X) equals the lower 6 bits of X.
F(X) equals 2 if X equals 63 otherwise F(X) equals 3.
D(X,Y) equals the (upper 2 bits of X) * 256 + Y + 1.
For compression factor 3:
L(X) equals the lower 5 bits of X.
F(X) equals 2 if X equals 31 otherwise F(X) equals 3.
D(X,Y) equals the (upper 3 bits of X) * 256 + Y + 1.
For compression factor 4:
L(X) equals the lower 4 bits of X.
F(X) equals 2 if X equals 15 otherwise F(X) equals 3.
D(X,Y) equals the (upper 4 bits of X) * 256 + Y + 1.
Imploding - Method 6
--------------------
The Imploding algorithm is actually a combination of two distinct
algorithms. The first algorithm compresses repeated byte
sequences using a sliding dictionary. The second algorithm is
used to compress the encoding of the sliding dictionary output,
using multiple Shannon-Fano trees.
The Imploding algorithm can use a 4K or 8K sliding dictionary
size. The dictionary size used can be determined by bit 1 in the
general purpose flag word; a 0 bit indicates a 4K dictionary
while a 1 bit indicates an 8K dictionary.
The Shannon-Fano trees are stored at the start of the compressed
file. The number of trees stored is defined by bit 2 in the
general purpose flag word; a 0 bit indicates two trees stored, a
1 bit indicates three trees are stored. If 3 trees are stored,
the first Shannon-Fano tree represents the encoding of the
Literal characters, the second tree represents the encoding of
the Length information, the third represents the encoding of the
Distance information. When 2 Shannon-Fano trees are stored, the
Length tree is stored first, followed by the Distance tree.
The Literal Shannon-Fano tree, if present is used to represent
the entire ASCII character set, and contains 256 values. This
tree is used to compress any data not compressed by the sliding
dictionary algorithm. When this tree is present, the Minimum
Match Length for the sliding dictionary is 3. If this tree is
not present, the Minimum Match Length is 2.
The Length Shannon-Fano tree is used to compress the Length part
of the (length,distance) pairs from the sliding dictionary
output. The Length tree contains 64 values, ranging from the
Minimum Match Length, to 63 plus the Minimum Match Length.
The Distance Shannon-Fano tree is used to compress the Distance
part of the (length,distance) pairs from the sliding dictionary
output. The Distance tree contains 64 values, ranging from 0 to
63, representing the upper 6 bits of the distance value. The
distance values themselves will be between 0 and the sliding
dictionary size, either 4K or 8K.
The Shannon-Fano trees themselves are stored in a compressed
format. The first byte of the tree data represents the number of
bytes of data representing the (compressed) Shannon-Fano tree
minus 1. The remaining bytes represent the Shannon-Fano tree
data encoded as:
High 4 bits: Number of values at this bit length + 1. (1 - 16)
Low 4 bits: Bit Length needed to represent value + 1. (1 - 16)
The Shannon-Fano codes can be constructed from the bit lengths
using the following algorithm:
1) Sort the Bit Lengths in ascending order, while retaining the
order of the original lengths stored in the file.
2) Generate the Shannon-Fano trees:
Code <- 0
CodeIncrement <- 0
LastBitLength <- 0
i <- number of Shannon-Fano codes - 1 (either 255 or 63)
loop while i >= 0
Code = Code + CodeIncrement
if BitLength(i) <> LastBitLength then
LastBitLength=BitLength(i)
CodeIncrement = 1 shifted left (16 - LastBitLength)
ShannonCode(i) = Code
i <- i - 1
end loop
3) Reverse the order of all the bits in the above ShannonCode()
vector, so that the most significant bit becomes the least
significant bit. For example, the value 0x1234 (hex) would
become 0x2C48 (hex).
4) Restore the order of Shannon-Fano codes as originally stored
within the file.
Example:
This example will show the encoding of a Shannon-Fano tree
of size 8. Notice that the actual Shannon-Fano trees used
for Imploding are either 64 or 256 entries in size.
Example: 0x02, 0x42, 0x01, 0x13
The first byte indicates 3 values in this table. Decoding the
bytes:
0x42 = 5 codes of 3 bits long
0x01 = 1 code of 2 bits long
0x13 = 2 codes of 4 bits long
This would generate the original bit length array of:
(3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 2, 4, 4)
There are 8 codes in this table for the values 0 thru 7. Using
the algorithm to obtain the Shannon-Fano codes produces:
Reversed Order Original
Val Sorted Constructed Code Value Restored Length
--- ------ ----------------- -------- -------- ------
0: 2 1100000000000000 11 101 3
1: 3 1010000000000000 101 001 3
2: 3 1000000000000000 001 110 3
3: 3 0110000000000000 110 010 3
4: 3 0100000000000000 010 100 3
5: 3 0010000000000000 100 11 2
6: 4 0001000000000000 1000 1000 4
7: 4 0000000000000000 0000 0000 4
The values in the Val, Order Restored and Original Length columns
now represent the Shannon-Fano encoding tree that can be used for
decoding the Shannon-Fano encoded data. How to parse the
variable length Shannon-Fano values from the data stream is beyond
the scope of this document. (See the references listed at the end of
this document for more information.) However, traditional decoding
schemes used for Huffman variable length decoding, such as the
Greenlaw algorithm, can be successfully applied.
The compressed data stream begins immediately after the
compressed Shannon-Fano data. The compressed data stream can be
interpreted as follows:
loop until done
read 1 bit from input stream.
if this bit is non-zero then (encoded data is literal data)
if Literal Shannon-Fano tree is present
read and decode character using Literal Shannon-Fano tree.
otherwise
read 8 bits from input stream.
copy character to the output stream.
otherwise (encoded data is sliding dictionary match)
if 8K dictionary size
read 7 bits for offset Distance (lower 7 bits of offset).
otherwise
read 6 bits for offset Distance (lower 6 bits of offset).
using the Distance Shannon-Fano tree, read and decode the
upper 6 bits of the Distance value.
using the Length Shannon-Fano tree, read and decode
the Length value.
Length <- Length + Minimum Match Length
if Length = 63 + Minimum Match Length
read 8 bits from the input stream,
add this value to Length.
move backwards Distance+1 bytes in the output stream, and
copy Length characters from this position to the output
stream. (if this position is before the start of the output
stream, then assume that all the data before the start of
the output stream is filled with zeros).
end loop
Tokenizing - Method 7
--------------------
This method is not used by PKZIP.
Deflating - Method 8
-----------------
The Deflate algorithm is similar to the Implode algorithm using
a sliding dictionary of up to 32K with secondary compression
from Huffman/Shannon-Fano codes.
The compressed data is stored in blocks with a header describing
the block and the Huffman codes used in the data block. The header
format is as follows:
Bit 0: Last Block bit This bit is set to 1 if this is the last
compressed block in the data.
Bits 1-2: Block type
00 (0) - Block is stored - All stored data is byte aligned.
Skip bits until next byte, then next word = block
length, followed by the ones compliment of the block
length word. Remaining data in block is the stored
data.
01 (1) - Use fixed Huffman codes for literal and distance codes.
Lit Code Bits Dist Code Bits
--------- ---- --------- ----
0 - 143 8 0 - 31 5
144 - 255 9
256 - 279 7
280 - 287 8
Literal codes 286-287 and distance codes 30-31 are
never used but participate in the huffman construction.
10 (2) - Dynamic Huffman codes. (See expanding Huffman codes)
11 (3) - Reserved - Flag a "Error in compressed data" if seen.
Expanding Huffman Codes
-----------------------
If the data block is stored with dynamic Huffman codes, the Huffman
codes are sent in the following compressed format:
5 Bits: # of Literal codes sent - 256 (256 - 286)
All other codes are never sent.
5 Bits: # of Dist codes - 1 (1 - 32)
4 Bits: # of Bit Length codes - 3 (3 - 19)
The Huffman codes are sent as bit lengths and the codes are built as
described in the implode algorithm. The bit lengths themselves are
compressed with Huffman codes. There are 19 bit length codes:
0 - 15: Represent bit lengths of 0 - 15
16: Copy the previous bit length 3 - 6 times.
The next 2 bits indicate repeat length (0 = 3, ... ,3 = 6)
Example: Codes 8, 16 (+2 bits 11), 16 (+2 bits 10) will
expand to 12 bit lengths of 8 (1 + 6 + 5)
17: Repeat a bit length of 0 for 3 - 10 times. (3 bits of length)
18: Repeat a bit length of 0 for 11 - 138 times (7 bits of length)
The lengths of the bit length codes are sent packed 3 bits per value
(0 - 7) in the following order:
16, 17, 18, 0, 8, 7, 9, 6, 10, 5, 11, 4, 12, 3, 13, 2, 14, 1, 15
The Huffman codes should be built as described in the Implode algorithm
except codes are assigned starting at the shortest bit length, i.e. the
shortest code should be all 0's rather than all 1's. Also, codes with
a bit length of zero do not participate in the tree construction. The
codes are then used to decode the bit lengths for the literal and
distance tables.
The bit lengths for the literal tables are sent first with the number
of entries sent described by the 5 bits sent earlier. There are up
to 286 literal characters; the first 256 represent the respective 8
bit character, code 256 represents the End-Of-Block code, the remaining
29 codes represent copy lengths of 3 thru 258. There are up to 30
distance codes representing distances from 1 thru 32k as described
below.
Length Codes
------------
Extra Extra Extra Extra
Code Bits Length Code Bits Lengths Code Bits Lengths Code Bits Length(s)
---- ---- ------ ---- ---- ------- ---- ---- ------- ---- ---- ---------
257 0 3 265 1 11,12 273 3 35-42 281 5 131-162
258 0 4 266 1 13,14 274 3 43-50 282 5 163-194
259 0 5 267 1 15,16 275 3 51-58 283 5 195-226
260 0 6 268 1 17,18 276 3 59-66 284 5 227-257
261 0 7 269 2 19-22 277 4 67-82 285 0 258
262 0 8 270 2 23-26 278 4 83-98
263 0 9 271 2 27-30 279 4 99-114
264 0 10 272 2 31-34 280 4 115-130
Distance Codes
--------------
Extra Extra Extra Extra
Code Bits Dist Code Bits Dist Code Bits Distance Code Bits Distance
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ------ ---- ---- -------- ---- ---- --------
0 0 1 8 3 17-24 16 7 257-384 24 11 4097-6144
1 0 2 9 3 25-32 17 7 385-512 25 11 6145-8192
2 0 3 10 4 33-48 18 8 513-768 26 12 8193-12288
3 0 4 11 4 49-64 19 8 769-1024 27 12 12289-16384
4 1 5,6 12 5 65-96 20 9 1025-1536 28 13 16385-24576
5 1 7,8 13 5 97-128 21 9 1537-2048 29 13 24577-32768
6 2 9-12 14 6 129-192 22 10 2049-3072
7 2 13-16 15 6 193-256 23 10 3073-4096
The compressed data stream begins immediately after the
compressed header data. The compressed data stream can be
interpreted as follows:
do
read header from input stream.
if stored block
skip bits until byte aligned
read count and 1's compliment of count
copy count bytes data block
otherwise
loop until end of block code sent
decode literal character from input stream
if literal < 256
copy character to the output stream
otherwise
if literal = end of block
break from loop
otherwise
decode distance from input stream
move backwards distance bytes in the output stream, and
copy length characters from this position to the output
stream.
end loop
while not last block
if data descriptor exists
skip bits until byte aligned
read crc and sizes
endif
Decryption
----------
The encryption used in PKZIP was generously supplied by Roger
Schlafly. PKWARE is grateful to Mr. Schlafly for his expert
help and advice in the field of data encryption.
PKZIP encrypts the compressed data stream. Encrypted files must
be decrypted before they can be extracted.
Each encrypted file has an extra 12 bytes stored at the start of
the data area defining the encryption header for that file. The
encryption header is originally set to random values, and then
itself encrypted, using three, 32-bit keys. The key values are
initialized using the supplied encryption password. After each byte
is encrypted, the keys are then updated using pseudo-random number
generation techniques in combination with the same CRC-32 algorithm
used in PKZIP and described elsewhere in this document.
The following is the basic steps required to decrypt a file:
1) Initialize the three 32-bit keys with the password.
2) Read and decrypt the 12-byte encryption header, further
initializing the encryption keys.
3) Read and decrypt the compressed data stream using the
encryption keys.
Step 1 - Initializing the encryption keys
-----------------------------------------
Key(0) <- 305419896
Key(1) <- 591751049
Key(2) <- 878082192
loop for i <- 0 to length(password)-1
update_keys(password(i))
end loop
Where update_keys() is defined as:
update_keys(char):
Key(0) <- crc32(key(0),char)
Key(1) <- Key(1) + (Key(0) & 000000ffH)
Key(1) <- Key(1) * 134775813 + 1
Key(2) <- crc32(key(2),key(1) >> 24)
end update_keys
Where crc32(old_crc,char) is a routine that given a CRC value and a
character, returns an updated CRC value after applying the CRC-32
algorithm described elsewhere in this document.
Step 2 - Decrypting the encryption header
-----------------------------------------
The purpose of this step is to further initialize the encryption
keys, based on random data, to render a plaintext attack on the
data ineffective.
Read the 12-byte encryption header into Buffer, in locations
Buffer(0) thru Buffer(11).
loop for i <- 0 to 11
C <- buffer(i) ^ decrypt_byte()
update_keys(C)
buffer(i) <- C
end loop
Where decrypt_byte() is defined as:
unsigned char decrypt_byte()
local unsigned short temp
temp <- Key(2) | 2
decrypt_byte <- (temp * (temp ^ 1)) >> 8
end decrypt_byte
After the header is decrypted, the last 1 or 2 bytes in Buffer
should be the high-order word/byte of the CRC for the file being
decrypted, stored in Intel low-byte/high-byte order. Versions of
PKZIP prior to 2.0 used a 2 byte CRC check; a 1 byte CRC check is
used on versions after 2.0. This can be used to test if the password
supplied is correct or not.
Step 3 - Decrypting the compressed data stream
----------------------------------------------
The compressed data stream can be decrypted as follows:
loop until done
read a character into C
Temp <- C ^ decrypt_byte()
update_keys(temp)
output Temp
end loop
In addition to the above mentioned contributors to PKZIP and PKUNZIP,
I would like to extend special thanks to Robert Mahoney for suggesting
the extension .ZIP for this software.
References:
Fiala, Edward R., and Greene, Daniel H., "Data compression with
finite windows", Communications of the ACM, Volume 32, Number 4,
April 1989, pages 490-505.
Held, Gilbert, "Data Compression, Techniques and Applications,
Hardware and Software Considerations", John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
Huffman, D.A., "A method for the construction of minimum-redundancy
codes", Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 40, Number 9, September 1952,
pages 1098-1101.
Nelson, Mark, "LZW Data Compression", Dr. Dobbs Journal, Volume 14,
Number 10, October 1989, pages 29-37.
Nelson, Mark, "The Data Compression Book", M&T Books, 1991.
Storer, James A., "Data Compression, Methods and Theory",
Computer Science Press, 1988
Welch, Terry, "A Technique for High-Performance Data Compression",
IEEE Computer, Volume 17, Number 6, June 1984, pages 8-19.
Ziv, J. and Lempel, A., "A universal algorithm for sequential data
compression", Communications of the ACM, Volume 30, Number 6,
June 1987, pages 520-540.
Ziv, J. and Lempel, A., "Compression of individual sequences via
variable-rate coding", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,
Volume 24, Number 5, September 1978, pages 530-536.