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/* This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
* License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
* file, You can obtain one at */
#ifndef mozilla_dom_MPSCQueue_h
#define mozilla_dom_MPSCQueue_h
namespace mozilla {
// This class implements a lock-free multiple producer single consumer queue of
// fixed size log messages, with the following characteristics:
// - Unbounded (uses a intrinsic linked list)
// - Allocates on Push. Push can be called on any thread.
// - Deallocates on Pop. Pop MUST always be called on the same thread for the
// life-time of the queue.
// In our scenario, the producer threads are real-time, they can't block. The
// consummer thread runs every now and then and empties the queue to a log
// file, on disk.
const size_t MPSC_MSG_RESERVED = sizeof(std::atomic<void*>);
template <typename T>
class MPSCQueue {
struct Message {
Message() {, std::memory_order_relaxed); }
Message(const Message& aMessage) = delete;
void operator=(const Message& aMessage) = delete;
std::atomic<Message*> mNext;
T data;
// Creates a new MPSCQueue. Initially, the queue has a single sentinel node,
// pointed to by both mHead and mTail.
// At construction, the initial message points to nullptr (it has no
// successor). It is a sentinel node, that does not contain meaningful
// data.
: mHead(new Message()), mTail(mHead.load(std::memory_order_relaxed)) {}
~MPSCQueue() {
Message dummy;
while (Pop(& {
Message* front = mHead.load(std::memory_order_relaxed);
delete front;
void Push(MPSCQueue<T>::Message* aMessage) {
// The next two non-commented line are called A and B in this paragraph.
// Producer threads i, i-1, etc. are numbered in the order they reached
// A in time, thread i being the thread that has reached A first.
// Atomically, on line A the new `mHead` is set to be the node that was
// just allocated, with strong memory order. From now on, any thread
// that reaches A will see that the node just allocated is
// effectively the head of the list, and will make itself the new head
// of the list.
// In a bad case (when thread i executes A and then
// is not scheduled for a long time), it is possible that thread i-1 and
// subsequent threads create a seemingly disconnected set of nodes, but
// they all have the correct value for the next node to set as their
// mNext member on their respective stacks (in `prev`), and this is
// always correct. When the scheduler resumes, and line B is executed,
// the correct linkage is resumed.
// Before line B, since mNext for the node was the last element of
// the queue still has an mNext of nullptr, Pop will not see the node
// added.
// For line A, it's critical to have strong ordering both ways (since
// it's going to possibly be read and write repeatidly by multiple
// threads)
// Line B can have weaker guarantees, it's only going to be written by a
// single thread, and we just need to ensure it's read properly by a
// single other one.
Message* prev =, std::memory_order_acq_rel);
prev->, std::memory_order_release);
// Copy the content of the first message of the queue to aOutput, and
// frees the message. Returns true if there was a message, in which case
// `aOutput` contains a valid value. If the queue was empty, returns false,
// in which case `aOutput` is left untouched.
bool Pop(T* aOutput) {
// Similarly, in this paragraph, the two following lines are called A
// and B, and threads are called thread i, i-1, etc. in order of
// execution of line A.
// On line A, the first element of the queue is acquired. It is simply a
// sentinel node.
// On line B, we acquire the node that has the data we want. If B is
// null, then only the sentinel node was present in the queue, we can
// safely return false.
// mTail can be loaded with relaxed ordering, since it's not written nor
// read by any other thread (this queue is single consumer).
// mNext can be written to by one of the producer, so it's necessary to
// ensure those writes are seen, hence the stricter ordering.
Message* tail = mTail.load(std::memory_order_relaxed);
Message* next = tail->mNext.load(std::memory_order_acquire);
if (next == nullptr) {
return false;
*aOutput = next->data;
// Simply shift the queue one node further, so that the sentinel node is
// now pointing to the correct most ancient node. It contains stale data,
// but this data will never be read again.
// It's only necessary to ensure the previous load on this thread is not
// reordered past this line, so release ordering is sufficient here., std::memory_order_release);
// This thread is now the only thing that points to `tail`, it can be
// safely deleted.
delete tail;
return true;
// An atomic pointer to the most recent message in the queue.
std::atomic<Message*> mHead;
// An atomic pointer to a sentinel node, that points to the oldest message
// in the queue.
std::atomic<Message*> mTail;
MPSCQueue(const MPSCQueue&) = delete;
void operator=(const MPSCQueue&) = delete;
} // namespace mozilla
#endif // mozilla_dom_MPSCQueue_h